Acne Vulgaris: Causes, Types, Treatment, and Nursing Management

Acne Vulgaris: Causes, Types, Treatment, and Nursing Management

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What is Acne Vulgaris?

  • Acne vulgaris is the most common inflammatory disorder of the sebaceous gland.
  • Acne vulgaris begins during puberty and is commonly found in males.
  • Acne vulgaris occurs due to abnormality in sebum production.

 

Definition of Acne Vulgaris

  • Acne vulgaris is a chronic skin disorder that develops lesions on the face, neck, chest, shoulder, and back due to obstruction and inflammation of the sebaceous gland and follicles.
  • Acne vulgaris occurs in different forms such as – comedians, nodules, pustules, and papules.
  • Low self-esteem, depression, and anxiety are common features in patients with acne.

 

Cause of Acne vulgaris

  • Unknown
  • Increase androgen activity
  • Genetic disorder
  • Obesity
  • Infection of the sebaceous duct
  • Hormonal change
  • Abnormal follicle differentiation
  • Excessive sebum production
  • Obstruction in sebaceous duct
  • Family history of acne
  • The proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes
  • Smoking and stress
  • Environmental change
  • Salon facial massage
  • Dietary supplements (High-fat diet).

 

Pathophysiology of Acne Vulgaris

Cause / puberty

Increase androgen level

Excessive enlargement of the sebaceous gland

Increase production of sebum and oil

Sebum and oil accumulate below the epidermis

Acne.

 

Clinical features of Acne vulgaris

  • Closed comedones ( whiteheads )
  • Open comedones ( blackheads )
  • Small and whitish papules
  • Pimples and nodules
  • Oily skin
  • Localize pain and tenderness
  • Pus formation into pustules
  • Cysts formation
  • Deep scanning.

 

Diagnostic examination of Acne vulgaris

  • Family history collection.
  • Physical examination
  • Assess endocrine function
  • Biopsy of lesions.

 

Medical management of Acne vulgaris

  • Administer topical and oral antibiotics.
  • Systemic antibiotics – doxycycline, minocycline.
  • Retinoid therapy – reduces abnormal hyperproliferative keratinocytes sites and inhibits sebum production.
  • Topical antibacterial and comedolytics.
  • Benzoyl peroxide
  • Vitamin A acid
  • Hormone therapy
  • Laser and phototherapy treatment.

 

Dietary management of Acne vulgaris

  • Avoid – chocolate, milk product, tea, coffee, cola, fried foods, excessive oily foods, junk foods, and high spicy foods.

 

Nursing management of Acne vulgaris

  • Nurses conduct physical examinations and collect family history.
  • Assess patient endocrine function.
  • Monitor patient dietary patterns.
  • Nurse advise to patients to wash their face with oil free face wash and water.
  • Encourage the patient to avoid high spicy and oily foods.
  • Provide instruction about avoiding manipulation of pimple blackheads.
  • Nurse provides education about –
  • Do not squeeze and prick the acne.
  • Do not use oily cosmetics.
  • Do not hard scrubs during face wash.
  • To maintain a balanced diet.
  • Away from a dusty environment.
  • Maintain hygiene.

Also Read:-

  1. Ear Infection (Otitis Media): Symptoms, Causes
  2. Meniere’s Disease: Symptoms, Causes, Treatments
  3. Angina Pectoris: Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

 

Frequently ask Questions related to Acne 

What is Acne Vulgaris?

Acne Vulgaris is an Inflammation disorder of the sebaceous gland

Which gland affects acne vulgaris?

Endocrine Gland.

Which Common features are found with acne, in puberty?

Low Self-esteem and Depression.

What is the Common cause of acne?

Diet is the Most Common Cause of Acne

What is Moderate Acne?

Moderate Acne is Inflammatory lesions with few pustules

Blackheads also know

Another Name for Blackheads is Open comedies

Whiteheads are also known as

Closed Comedones.

What Causes acne Vulgaris?

Increase androgen activity
Genetic disorder
Obesity
Infection of the sebaceous duct
Hormonal change
Abnormal follicle differentiation
Excessive sebum production
Obstruction in sebaceous duct
Family history of acne
The proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes
Smoking and stress
Environmental change
Salon facial massage
Dietary supplements (High-fat diet).

What is the Difference between acne and acne vulgaris?

Acne Vulgaris:-
Acne vulgaris is the most common inflammatory disorder of the sebaceous gland.
Acne vulgaris begins during puberty and is commonly found in male.
Acne vulgaris occurs due to abnormality in sebum production.

Acne:-
Acne is a skin condition that occurs when your hair follicles become plugged with oil and dead skin cells.

What is treatment for acne vulgaris?

Administer topical and oral antibiotics.
Systemic antibiotics – doxycycline, minocycline.
Retinoid therapy – reduces abnormal hyperproliferative keratinocytes sites and inhibits sebum production.
Topical antibacterial and comedolytics.
Benzoyl peroxide
Vitamin A acid
Hormone therapy
Laser and phototherapy treatment.

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