Administration of Medicine Introduction
Administration of medicine is a chemical procedure in which a medicine is administered to the patient in order to treat or prevent disease or complication. Medicine is a substance that is used to promote health, to diagnose, prevent and cure disease. A major responsibility of nurses is to provide safe and accurate administration of medicine. Improper administration of drugs can cause harmful effects.
how to decide the name of drugs?
how to decide the names of drugs in India?
Drugs are available in the market by several names.
Generic name of Drugs-
generic name of the drug assigned by the manufacturer. The generic name is derived from the chemical name. Paracetamol is a generic name of acetaminophen.
The chemical name of Drugs – the chemical name of the drug based on the compound chemical structure of the drug. Acetylaminophenol and para acetylaminophenol is a chemical name of paracetamol drugs.
The official name of drugs – the official name of the drug is identified in the official publication. The official name of a drug was approved by the national pharmacopeia commission. Acetaminophen is the official name of paracetamol.
Brand name of Drugs –Brand name of the drug is a registered name of the manufacturer.Common brand name of paracetamol is panadol, Tylenol, calpol etc.
Classification of drugs-
Classification of drugs according to their action –
Analgesics – drug used to treat pain.
Antipyretics – drug used to reduce body fever.
Antiseptic – drug used to inhibit the growth of bacteria.
Antibiotics – drugs used to destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms.
Anesthetics – drug used for loss of sensation.
Anthelmintics – drugs used to destroy worms.
Antidotes – drugs used to neutralize the effect of poison.
Anti-inflammatory – drugs help to reduce inflammation.
Antihistamine – used to prevent the allergic disorders.
Anticoagulants – drugs used to inhibit the formation of blood clotting.
Anticonvulsants – drug used to prevent convulsion in epilepsy.
Antacids – drug used to decrease gastric acid secretion.
Antiemetics – drug used to treat vomiting.
Antidiarrhetics – agent used to treat diarrhoea.
Antiasthmatics – drug used to provide relief of asthmatic attacks.
Antipruritics – substance used to treat itching.
Antifungal – drug used to prevent and destroy the growth of fungi.
Antispasmodics – drug used to relieve muscles spasm and spasm pain.
Antirheumatics – drug used to treat rheumatic disorder.
Antitubercular – drugs used to treat and prevent tuberculosis.
Coagulants – substance used to coagulate the blood.
Bronchodilators – drugs used to relax the bronchioles muscles.
Cathartics – dragon used to cause the intestinal evacuation.
Diuretics – drugs that cause increased urine flow.
Carminatives – drug used for expulsion of gas from intestine and stomach.
Corticosteroids – used to reduce the inflammation and swelling.
Diaphoretics – drug Induce the excessive sweating.
Emetics – drugs that produce vomiting.
Oxytocics – drug used to stimulate the uterine contraction.
Emmenagogues – drugs used to stimulate the menstrual discharge.
Hypnotics – drugs helpful to produce sleep.
Hemostatics – an agent to check the haemorrhage.
Galactagogue – agent that increases milk flow.
Hypotensive – a drug used to reduce the blood pressure.
Haematinics – substances that increase the hemoglobin content in the blood.
Hypoglycemics – drugs used to reduce blood sugar level.
Mydriatics – drug used to dilate the pupil of the eye.
Miotics – drug used to control the pupil of the eye.
Narcotics – drugs used to reduce pain.
Stypics – drug used to check haemorrhage.
Sedatives – drugs used to treat anxiety.
Tranquilizers – drugs used to state anxiety, tension, fear and agitation.
Vesicants – it is a blistering agent.
Vasodilators – drugs used to dilate the blood vessels.
Vasoconstriction – drug used to contract the blood vessels.
Form of drug
The form of drug depends upon the routh and method of drug administration. Many kinds of drugs are available in the market like solid, liquid or semi solids.
Common drug forms are – capsule, tablet, pills, syrup, cream, ointments, patches, lotions, paste, suppository, spirits etc.
OD – Daily ( once a day )
ac – before meal
pc – after meal
on – each night
om – each morning
alt – alternate days
h.s. – at bedtime
hn – tonight
Prn – when required
SOS – when required in emergency
BD – twice a day
TDS – three time in a day
QID – four time in a day
Stat – at once
OD – right eye
OS – left eye
OU – both eye
AD – right ear
AS – left ear
AU – both ear
IM – intramuscular
IV – intravenous
SC – subcutaneous
Rx – prescription.
Types of drug order
Stat order – stat order includes administration of drugs immediately and only once.
Standing order – it is to prescribe the pre-written medication order with specific instructions.
PRN order – medication administered when needed.
Single order – it is a one time written order for a medication administration.
Verbal order – verbal order uses only emergency or when the prescribed is unable to document the order.
Effects of drugs on the body
Therapeutic effects of drugs
Therapeutic effects of drugs are the primary effects that are the reason for drug prescriptions.
Therapeutic effect is a response after a treatment of any kind.
Therapeutic effects of drugs on the body are the desired and intentional effects of medicine.
Local and systemic effects of drugs
Local effect of a drug is a response to a drug that is confined to a specific part of the body.
For example eye drops, topical skin cream or ointment cause the local effects.
A drug observes in the bloodstream and produces a systematic effect in the body.
Adverse effects of drugs
Adverse effects of drugs are unwanted and harmful experiences.
Adverse effects indicate the drug to be discontinued or reduce the Drug dose.
Side effects of drugs
Side effects are a minor adverse effect.
The side effects of drugs are harmful or harmless.
Side effects are produced with therapeutic doses of the drug.
Side effects are useful in some circumstances.
Toxicity effects of drugs
The toxic effects of drugs occur due to high levels of drugs in the blood.
Some toxic effects are fatal for the client.
Route of drug administration
Route of drug administration is the medium of introducing any drugs into the body for its actions.
Many different routes of drug administration are
Oral route of administration of drugs
The oral route is the most common and more convenient route of drug administration.
Oral routes include a drug being taken through the mouth.
Advantages of oral route of administration of drugs –
safe route and easy to use.
No need for privacy.
No need for sterilization.
Cheap and convenient.
unpleasant test of a drug.
Irregularity of absorption.
Destruction by PH.
Not suitable for vomiting and unconscious patients.
Sublingual route of Drug Administration
In a sublingual route, a drug is put under the tongue.
Example – nitroglycerin drug used in Angina.
Inhalation route of Drug Administration
Drug administration through the fumes into the lungs, for local and systemic effects.
Inhalation routes include gases and volatile agents.
Inunction route of Drug Administration:-
It is a topical application in which drugs apply on the skin surface.
Example – emollient drugs, antiseptics or astringents etc.
Insertion of Drug Administration
Introducing a solid form drug into the body orifices, is called insertion.
Example – suppositories.
Instillation of Drug Administration
Putting a liquid form drugs into the body cavity is called installation.
Example – eye, ear drops.
Insufflation Drug administration
Use an insufflator to administer the drug in the form of powder, vapour or air into the wound or body cavity.
Implantation Drug Administration
Implantation means putting a drug into the body tissues.
Parenteral route of Drug Administration
Intravenous route – drug administered through vein.
Intramuscular route – drug administered through muscles.
Intra-arterial – drug administered through arteries.
Subcutaneous – drug administered under the epidermis or into the dermis.
Intraosseous – drug administered into the bone marrow.
Intraspinal – drug administered into the spinal cavity.
Intracardiac – drug administered into cardiac muscles.
Intraperitoneal – drug administered into peritoneal cavity.
Rights of drug administration
Safety measures of drug administration
follow the 5 rights, during drug administration
- Right client
- Right drug
- Right dose
- Right time
- Right method.
- Right client
Identify physician order and make sure medicine is ordered.
Read the patient name on the medicine chart and patient file.
Ask the patient ‘s name, age or date of birth.
Right drug- Read the physician order and understand and collect details about medicine. Select the right drug from the cupboard. Read the level of the medicine card and medicine container. Read the expiry date of drugs. Compare medication label and medication record.
Right dose- Read the physician ‘s order carefully to identify the correct dose.Check the dose available. Measure the dose accurately, according to the prescription for Drug dose calculation.Help the patient to take all medicine in the correct dose.
Right time- Carefully read the physician order. Maintain correct time of drug administration according to Drug dose in a day.Example – BDS, TDS etc.
Right route- Determine the physician order carefully.Identify the route of drug administration according to prescription or drug uses.If a parent uses drugs, dilate the medicine.
Nursing role to administer drugs
Nurses collect the information about clients and client disease conditions.
Nurse carefully read the physician’s order and understood well.
If you are having a problem understanding drugs, a nurse can ask a senior nurse.
Nurses follow the barrier of nursing to prevent infection.
Nurse checks the purpose of medication.
Before drug administration, nurses assess the patient’s vital signs.
Nurses follow the right of drug administrations ( right patient, right drug, right dose, right time and right route ).
Before drug administration, check the expiry date of the drug.
Nurse checks the conscious level of the patient.
Nurse prepares the medicine trolley.
If the patient is conscious, explain the procedure of drug administration.
Encourage the client for cooperation during the procedure.
After drug administration, the nurse discards the waste.
Remove gloves and hand wash.
General FAQ About Drug Administration
What is the Generic name of the acetaminophen drug?
Generic name of acetaminophen drug – Paracetamol