What is a vitamin?
- these are required by the body in much smaller amounts. They do not yield energy like fats But they are vital for the survival of man as catalysts in various body processes.
Classification of Vitamins:-
Fat soluble vitamins : Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat saluble vitamins.
- Vitamin A or retinol
- Vitamin D (Caliciferol-D2, cholecalciferol D3)
- Vitamin E (Tocopherol)
- Vitamin K
Water-soluble vitamins :
- Thiamine ( vitamin B1)
- Riboflavin (vitamin B2)
- Nicotinic acid
- Pyridoxine ( vitamin B6)
- Pantothenic acid
- Folic acid
- Vitamin B12
- Ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
What is Vitamin A (Retinol)
- Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin. Its chemical name is “retinol”. In India 8% of children aged 6 months–6 years have vitamin A deficiency. It is a major cause of preventable
The function of Vitamin A:
- Normal vision and health of the
- The health of the skin and mucous
Sources of Vitamin A: Animal Sources: Butter, ghee, egg, milk, liver, and fish are good sources.
The daily requirement of Vitamin A: (1 I.U. of vitamin A =0.3 u g retinol)
Effects of deficiency: Night blindness, Bitot’s spots, Xerophthalmia, Keratomalacia.
What is Vitamin D
- It occurs in mainly 2
- Vitamin D2 or ergocalciferol (does not occur in nature)
- Vitamin D3 or cholecalciferol (occurs widely in animal fats and fish oils)
Functions of Vitamin D:-
- formation of the healthy bones and It has a direct action on the mineralization of the bones.
- It promotes the intestinal absorption and utilization of calcium and
Sources: Sunlight, Food, Daily requirement
- Adults: They need 5 micrograms (100 i.u.) per day.
- Pregnancy, lactation, and growing children: This may be up to 10 micrograms (400 u.) per day.
What is Vitamin E?
- It is available in small quantities in meats, fruits, and vegetables.
- The richest sources are vegetable oils (e.g., oils of sunflower seeds). Humans on a balanced diet do not easily suffer from its
The function of Vitamin K( Thiamine)
- It is also synthesized to some extent by intestinal
- It is necessary for proper clotting It is used, therefore, for the prevention and treatment of bleeding.
- . Its daily requirement is about 03 mg/kg for the adult.
Function of Thiamine
- It is a water-soluble
- It plays an important part in carbohydrate metabolism. In thiamine deficiency, there is an accumulation of pyruvic and lactic acids in the tissues and body fluids. It is also essential for the proper functioning of the nervous
Sources of Thiamine: in small amounts in all-natural foods, cereals, pulses, and nuts groundnut.
Daily requirements of Thiamine: It is 0.5 mg per 100 kcals of energy intake.
Function of Riboflavin
The function of Riboflavin: It is involved in protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism.
Sources of Riboflavin: Good sources are milk and milk products, eggs, liver, and green leafy vegetables. Wheat, millets, and pulses are fair sources, but rice is a poor source.
The daily requirement of Riboflavin is- 0.6 mg per 1,000 calories.
Deficiency: cheilosis (red lips, with the fissured angle of the mouth), soreness of the tongue, redness and burning sensation in the eyes, dermatitis.
What is Niacin?
Function: It is required by the body for the utilization of carbohydrate and tissue respiration.
Sources: grain cereals, pulses, nuts, meat, liver, and chicken. Requirement: The daily requirement is 6.6 mg. per 1,000 calories. Deficiency: It may lead to pellagra, characterized by soreness of the tongue, pigmented scaly skin, dementia, and diarrhea.
Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)
It plays an important role in the metabolism of amino acids, fats, and carbohydrates.
Source- Food rich in pyridoxine are liver, meat, fish, whole cereals, and legumes.
Deficiency – skin lesions, cheilosis, glossitis, and convulsions in children.
Requirement – require 2.0 mg per day
- It is widely distributed in animal and vegetable
- No deficiency symptoms have been reported in
- The human requirement for this vitamin has not been clearly
What is Folic acid?
It is essential for the synthesis of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
Sources: The liver is one of the richest sources. It is also found in pulses, nuts, and whole grains.
Deficiency results in anemia which is common among poor people and also among pregnant women.
Requirement: For healthy adults, it is 100 micrograms and during pregnancy 400 micrograms; children need 100 micrograms.
What is Vitamin B12?
It is also necessary for the synthesis of DNA and also in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism.
Source: Liver, eggs, fish, and milk contain vitamin B12.
Deficiency: It leads to pernicious anemia. It can also affect the nervous system, including the spinal cord.
Requirement: About 1 microgram for adults. For proper utilization of vitamin B12 intestinal secretion should be normal.
What is Vitamin C?
It is a water-soluble vitamin. It is the most unstable of all the vitamins. It gets rapidly destroyed by high temperature, oxidation, drying, or storage.
Functions: It is required to form collagen, the protein substance that binds the cells together, if this substance is not formed, healing of the wounds will be delayed. Bleeding phenomena appear on vitamin C deficiency. It helps in the absorption of iron. It helps in increasing the general resistance of the body to fight infection.
Sources: All fresh fruits contain vitamin C. Amla is one of the richest sources, Guavas are cheap but rich sources. Green leafy vegetables are rich in vitamin C. Roots and tubers (potatoes) contain very small amounts.
Deficiency: It results in a bleeding disease called scurvy seen in infants on artificial feeds.
What is Minerals –
These are divided into two major groups: •
Major minerals: Calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and magnesium.
Trace elements: These are required by the body in less than a few milligrams per day e.g. iron, iodine, fluorine, zinc, copper, and cobalt.