- A cataract is a disorder in which opacity (cloudiness) in the lens of the eye and degeneration of lens fibers, lead to blurred vision.
- A cataract occurs due to hydration, denaturation of lens protein, and sclerosis.
A cataract is the most common cause of blindness.
According to etiology
- Acquired cataracts commonly occur.
- Acquired cataract are
- Senile cataract
- Metabolic cataract
- Complicated cataract
- Traumatic cataract
associated with skin disease
- Drug Induced cataract
- Cataract with miscellaneous syndrome
- Electric cataract.
- Also known as the congenital cataract occurs due to disturbance in normal development of the lens.
- Generally development cataracts occur in the infancy to adolescence, due to genetic disorders.
2. According to morphology
- Subcapsular cataract – anterior subcapsular cataract.
- Posterior subcapsular cataract.
Cortical cataract –
a cataract occurs due to wedge shape or radial spoke like opacities of lens.
- Occur outer edge of the lenses.
Nuclear cataract –
a cataract occurs in the center of the lens.
- Yellow to Brown coloration.
Causes of Cataract
- Family history
- Age factors
- Malnutrition during pregnancy
- Radiation exposure
- Excessive use of corticosteroids
- Down syndrome
- Skeletal syndrome
- Chromosome abnormality
- Birth trauma
- Diabetes mellitus
- Marfan syndrome
- Previous ocular surgery
- Wilson disease.
Pathophysiology of Cataract
Cause / Etiology
Traumatic damage the lens fibres
Rupture lens capsule
Hydration of lens fibers
Opacity of lens.
Signs/Symptoms of Cataract
Clinical manifestation of
Cataract Clinical manifestation
- Cloudy vision
- Blurred vision
- Photophobia ( sensitive to light )
- Double vision
- Monocular diplopia
- Distortion of lines
- Reduce visual acuity
- Dim red reflex
- Poor vision at night
- Decrease colour perception
- White pupil.
Diagnostic examination of Cataract
- History collection and physical examination.
- Direct ophthalmoscope examination.
- Snailing visual acuity test.
- Slit lamp examination.
- Retinal examination.
Medical management of Cataract
- Use glasses
- Optical aids
- Pupillary dilation
- Topical steroids
- Antibiotics drops
- Steroid drops.
Surgical management of Cataract
- Intracapsular extraction – remove the whole lens and surround it.
- Extracapsular extraction – only cataract removal.
- Phacoemulsification – emulsifying of the lens by a hollow needle vibrating and ultrasonic speed.
Complication – Blindness.
- Nurses monitor patients’ visual acuity and vital signs.
- Examine the complete morphology of lens opacity under slit lamp examination.
- Examine the cornea to find out any opacity of the lens.
- Monitor intraocular pressure (IOP).
- Nurses also assess pupillary response.
- The nurse performed the cover test.
- Use a nursing barrier to prevent infection.
- Nurses assist the client during any activity.
- Provide instruction about cataract patient care and Management.
- Nurses help to conduct diagnostic examinations.
- Provide adequate medications and other required treatment.
- Provide emotional and physiological support and reduce anxiety.
- Prepare the client for surgical intervention.
- Administer local anesthesia with sedation before surgery.
- Nurse counseling to relieve patient anxiety.
What is the main cause of cataracts?
Malnutrition during pregnancy
Excessive use of corticosteroids
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