What is Multiple Sclerosis Cause type & Treatment

What is Multiple Sclerosis? Cause type & Treatment

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Multiple Sclerosis Introduction 

  • Multiple sclerosis also knows as a degenerative brain disorder or degenerative CNS disorder.
  • Multiple sclerosis most common CNS disorder, that occurs between the 20 and 40 age groups.
  • Multiple sclerosis is a progressive inflammatory and demyelinating disease.

Multiple sclerosis Definition  

Multiple sclerosis defines as a chronic progressive degenerative disease that affect the myelin sheath of neurons in CNS. Multiple sclerosis is a not contagious disorder and more prevalent in women than men. Demyelinating results in impaired transmission of nerve impulses.

Cause of Multiple sclerosis

  • Idiopathic
  • Genetic disorder
  • Autoimmune disorder – immunological reaction
  • Infection
  • Environmental factors
  • Type – 4th hypersensitivity reaction.

Multiple sclerosis Pathophysiology

Cause

Abnormal functioning of myelin sheath

Inflammation and destruction of myelin sheath

Chronic, progressive neurological dysfunction

Multiple sclerosis.

Multiple sclerosis Clinical features  

  • Generalized weakness and fatigue
  • Numbness and tingling
  • In coordination of movement
  • Bowel and bladder dysfunction
  • Paralysis
  • Mild diplopia
  • Vision loss
  • Swallowing and chewing difficulty
  • Sensory route affect
  • Dysphagia
  • Transient blindness
  • Walking difficulty
  • Muscles spasm
  • Ataxia and vertigo
  • Dizziness
  • Body pain
  • Memory change.
  • Tried symptom – Nystagmus
  • Dysarthria
  • Intentional tremor.

Multiple sclerosis Dignosis

  • History collection and physical examination.
  • CT scan and MRI.
  • PET scan.
  • Neurological examination.
  • Lumbar puncture test.
  • Blood test and spinal tap test.

Multiple sclerosis Treatment

  • Multiple sclerosis Pharmacological management –

    • Immunosuppressive agents
  • Methotrexate
  • Azathioprine.
    • Corticosteroid therapy – for inflammation.
    • Alkylating agents
    • Skeletal muscles relaxant medication
    • Carbamazepine and clonazepam drugs
    • Plasmapheresis ( plasma exchange )
    • Glatiramer acetate – block immune system attack
    • Fingolimod – Reduce replace rate.
  • Physical therapy and massage relaxants therapy.
  • Lifestyle modification and daily exercise.
  • Pregabalin for nerve healing.

Multiple sclerosis Complications  

  • Muscles spasm and stiffness.
  • Epilepsy
  • Bladder and bowel dysfunction
  • Paralysis
  • Forgetfulness and mood swings
  • Sexual dysfunctions.

Multiple sclerosis Nursing management  

  • Nurses assess physical examination and vital signs.
  • The nurse will assess the patient vision problems, if the patient has vision, she provides safety.
  • Cover patient affected eye by patch.
  • Nurses monitor patient bowel and bladder functions.
  • Nurses provide complete rest and sometimes encourage activity.
  • Monitor patient swallowing and chewing activity.
  • Provide psychological and emotional support.
  • The nurse will encourage the patient to wear a medical alert bracelet.
  • The nurse will ask the attendees to assist every patient activity.

Key Points about Multiple sclerosis

  1. Degenerative brain disorder is – Multiple sclerosis.
  2. MS is a neurological disorder that affects the – Myelin sheath of neurons.
  3. What is the main reason MS – Autoimmune disorder?
  4. Tried symptom of multiple sclerosis – Nystagmus, dysarthria and intentional tremor.
  5. Common bowel complication associated with MS – Constipation.
  6. Common diagnostic examination helpful in MS – MRI.
  7. Main demyelinating event in patients with MS – Optic neuritis.
  8. What kind of multiple sclerosis disease – Autoimmune?
  9. Common finding of MS disorder – Balance imbalance.
  10. Multiple sclerosis more common prevalertin – Women.
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