Nephrotic Syndrome Treatments, Causes, & Symptoms

Nephrotic Syndrome: Treatments, Causes, & Symptoms


Introduction of Nephrotic syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome is a symptom of glomerular inflammation. Nephrotic syndrome is a protein-wasting disorder. Nephrotic syndrome damages the glomerular capillary permeability.

Definition of Nephrotic syndrome

Nephrotic Syndrome Treatments, Causes, & Symptoms
Nephrotic syndrome. kidney disorder. Signs and symptoms. clinical and laboratory findings present in Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome is a primary glomerular disease characterized by proteinuria, edema, and hypoalbuminemia.

Types of Nephrotic syndrome

  1. Primary Nephrotic syndrome (85%)

  • Minimal change Nephrotic syndrome.
  • Most common Nephrotic syndrome.
  • Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
  • Membranous nephropathy.
  1. Secondary Nephrotic syndrome (10%)

  • Occur in children of all cases.
  • Occur due to chronic glomerulonephritis.
  1. Congenital Nephrotic syndrome

  • Rare disorder.
  • Occur due to serious and fatal problems associated with kidney disorder.

Cause of Nephrotic syndrome

  • Glomerulonephritis
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Autoimmune reaction due to antigen
  • Renal disorder
  • Antibody reaction
  • Nephrotic substance
  • Trauma and infection
  • Renal thrombosis
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus  (SLE)
  • Viral infection

Pathophysiology of Nephrotic syndrome


Damage glomerular

Effect glomerular basement membrane


Decrease serum albumin level (hypoalbuminemia)

Oncotic pressure also decrease

Fluid-filled up in extracellular space


Signs & Symptoms of Nephrotic syndrome

  • Tried symptoms of Nephrotic syndrome –
      • Proteinuria
      • Hypoalbuminemia
      • Edema.
  • Hyperlipidemia
  • Anorexia, weakness and fatigue
  • Hypertension
  • Shortness of breath ( SOB )
  • Anaemia ( due to RBC loss )
  • Irritability and restlessness
  • Weight gain
  • Ascites
  • Puffiness around the eyes
  • Abdominal pain and diarrhoea
  • Pleural effusion and pulmonary edema.

Diagnosis of Nephrotic syndrome

  • History collection and physical examination.
  • Urine analysis ( 24 hrs. urine )
  • Haematuria
  • Proteinuria
  • Blood test ( CBC )
  • Serum protein decrease
  • Serum cholesterol increase
  • Blood urea nitrogen ( BUN )
  • Serum creatinine (increase).
  • Renal function test.
  • Renal biopsy.
  • Renal USG.
  • X-ray
  • Intravenous urogram ( IVU )
  • Renal scan

Treatment of Nephrotic syndrome

  • Drug of choice is prednisolone.
  • Diuretic drug for edema.
  • Corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs.
  • Antilipidemic.
  • Antihypertensive drugs.
  • Antibiotics for infection.
  • Anticoagulant therapy.
  • ACE inhibitors.

Dite’s in Nephrotic syndrome

  • A high protein diet, treat proteinuria condition.
  • High carbohydrate diet.
  • Sodium restriction diet.
  • Fluid restriction.

Complications in Nephrotic syndrome

  • Infection
  • Hypovolemia
  • Pulmonary edema
  • Growth retardation
  • Thromboembolic complication.

Nursing Management of Nephrotic syndrome

  • Nurses monitor vital signs and patient daily urine output.
  • Monitor daily weight of patients.
  • Observe edema condition and restrict fluid intake.
  • Diagnostic urinalysis and assess proteinuria.
  • Provide a high carbohydrate and high protein diet to patients.
  • Provide sodium restriction diet.
  • Provide corticosteroid, diuretic and immunosuppressant therapy.
  • Provide cell prescribe medication.
  • Encouragement for oral hygiene.
  • Maintain patient input and output charts.
  • Nurses use proper aseptic techniques.

A nurse prepares the patient for hemodialysis.

  • Provide physiological and emotional support.
  • Nurses focus on a high-protein diet.

Key Points

  1. Protein wasting renal disorder – Nephrotic syndrome. 
  2. Tried symptoms of Nephrotic syndrome – Proteinuria, edema, hypoalbuminemia.
  3. Common type of Nephrotic syndrome – Primary Nephrotic syndrome.
  4. Drug of choice of Nephrotic syndrome – Prednisolone.
  5. Common nursing action, when patient on diuretic therapy – Daily weight measure.
  6. Common diet in aprotic syndrome – High protein diet.
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